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Submission guidelines


Article Submission Guidelines

Are you a fish expert? Have you ever dreamed of writing for TFH? Submit an article idea today! Manuscripts should be submitted as individual email attachments to

Article Content
We are looking for good writing about interesting topics. It is important to be clear, precise, succinct, and organized. We do not pay by the word, so trim your prose as tight as possible.

Be accurate. Research your topic fully. Do not repeat hearsay or opinions; report facts. When drawing conclusions from personal experiences, be sure not to over generalize.

Proofread your material! Check spelling and punctuation. Watch out for homonyms. Use serial commas. Pay attention to restrictive versus non-restrictive subordinate clauses. Keep track of agreement and sequence of tenses.

CHECK SCIENTIFIC NAMES! We often get manuscripts with misspelled or incorrect scientific names. Do your homework and get it right. A good resource for scientific names of fish is For invertebrates and other animals, a good resource is

Article Format
Please include a suggested article title on the first line of the manuscript and your name on the second line. You are responsible for the spelling of your own name.

Text should be left justified only.

The presentation of your material should be professional, indicating you understand the nature of publishable text. We often receive articles that are formatted to look nice on the screen, however, such formatting is applied during article design, and all of it must be stripped from the text before we can send it to the Art Department. Therefore we want plain text without formatting.

Most articles are between 10,000 and 20,000 characters-with-spaces long.

Please break up the text using subheads to categorize topics. Typically subheads appear at least every 2500 characters with spaces, but it depends on the nature of the text.

We prefer articles that are submitted with photos. Do not insert photos into the text. Photos must be submitted separately. For more information regarding photos, please see below.

Use no formatting other than the italicization of scientific names. That is, do not use bold, underline, font changes, font size changes, font colors, all caps, centering, styles, page numbers, headers, margin adjustments, tabs, line spacing, paragraph indents, columns, or any other formatting.

Turn off widow/orphan control, margin changes, formatting, styling, bookmarks, and anything else that inserts codes into the text. These can create mayhem when the article is sent to design.

Use one space between sentences, not two as old-fashioned teachers will instruct.

Do not indent paragraphs. A single hard return <ENTER> will cue a paragraph break, even though it won’t necessarily show on the screen. Editors hate tabs! Do not use them, except in tables.

Italicize scientific names; it is a real pain to have to insert italics throughout an article. The genus name is italicized and has an initial capital, the species name is italicized and is all lowercase. Example: Poecilia reticulata.

Other taxa have the first initial capitalized but not italicized: Cichlidae, Mollusca, etc.

Common names of fishes are capitalized only if they contain proper names—albino tiger barb, Odessa barb, convict cichlid, Australian rainbow.

Be very sparing with tonal emphasis. Do not use bold or all caps to indicate emphasis. Use only italics, and very rarely.

Quotation marks are for direct quotes. They are rarely justified in other uses. If you are not quoting someone else’s words, it is very unlikely you need to use the marks.

Please only use references sparingly, if at all, and only if specific facts are cited internally in the form of (author, date).

All articles must be submitted exclusively to TFH—if you have submitted the article elsewhere, or it is posted online, please do not submit it to us.

If we accept your article, you may not submit it to any other magazine, post it on a website, or otherwise reproduce it for public use. We purchase all English-language publishing rights to the article.

Please be patient. While we try to reply to everyone as quickly as possible, it may take some time to review your article. Emailing us once to check on its status is welcomed, but please do not email us constantly—we will get back to you.

While appreciated, submitting an article with photos does not guarantee that your photos will be used with your article. Sometimes we choose photos from other photographers to illustrate the topic.

Please note: Travel/collecting articles without photos will not be accepted.

We look forward to reviewing your submission!


Posted September 14th, 2016.

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Sneaking Success

Neolamprologus pulcher. Photograph from TFH Archives.

By David E. Boruchowitz

Cichlids demonstrate extremely sophisticated reproductive strategies. One of the least common involves cooperative breeding in groups or colonies. Lake Tanganyikan Neolamprologus pulcher breed en masse, with the entire colony rising as one to fend off predators, and with non breeding individuals participating in the care and protection of the offspring.

Aquarists have long known about this behavior, which is more obvious in the wild, where hundreds of fish are involved, but which translates in captivity into breeding groups that avoid the typical predation on the fry by non parental adults in the same tank.

A new study reveals that about 10 percent of the fry produced in these colonies are sired by subordinate males, and that those males are more diligent in protecting the young.

This is reminiscent of the situation in several Xiphophorus swordtails, where smaller, inconspicuous males rely on sneaking rather than courtship to father a small percentage of fry. In both cases subordinate males father a small but significant number of offspring, though in the case of the swordtails it is a matter of genetic castes among the males, not just one of dominance.

Posted June 2nd, 2015.

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Conditioning Breeders

By Mike Hellweg

Fish will do what comes naturally and spawn in our aquaria IF we give them what they need.  With many species that means approximating the spawning season, giving the adults what barb and tetra guru Randy Carey calls a “trigger” to initiate spawning.  Following the metaphor, all we as aquarists need to do is figure out how to turn off the safety and pull the trigger.

With many fish like cichlids and livebearers, all we have to do is buy a group of juveniles and grow them out.  Eventually, they will reach sexual maturity and pair off, even in a community tank.   Often they will even successfully raise a brood of fry in that same community tank.  But many other fish aren’t so easy.  Many of them require a little to a lot of extra work on the part of the hobbyist.

Blackworms are an excellent live food to use to help induce spawning in somewhat difficult fish.

Blackworms are an excellent live food to use to help induce spawning in somewhat difficult fish.

With these fish it is best to separate out the males from the females.  When you have limited tank space, the best way to do this is to move the female(s) to what will become the spawning tank, and leave the male(s) in the community tank.

At first the spawning tank can have water similar to the main tank.  As the conditioning period goes forward, begin changing the water out with water more appropriate for the particular species (harder, softer, more basic or acidic, more or less salty, etc.).  Do several water changes over the course of a week to 10 days.

Feed the adults heavily with meaty foods.  Flake or pellet food just isn’t enough.  There are various enzymes, amino acids, and other things in living foods that are destroyed by processing.  This is why every experienced breeder will tell you that you need to use live foods for conditioning.  Many of us use frozen and freeze-dried foods as well, but live foods really provide that extra boost that makes the difference between success and failure.

European drift worms are another type of worm that can be cultured and fed to fish that are being conditioned to breed.

European drift worms are another type of worm that can be cultured and fed to fish that are being conditioned to breed.

Every time I give a talk on breeding fish, I quote my friend and breeding guru Charley Grimes of Indianapolis.  I think he put it most succinctly:  “the best way to put eggs in her belly is to put worms in her tummy.”

Worms are an excellent live food.  We are fortunate in that we have many different types of worms to use that can be sized to the mouth of the fish, or larger worms can be cut up for feeding smaller fish.  Some of the ones currently in use by breeders include Grindal worms, white worms, tubifex worms, Dero worms, black worms, red wigglers, European drift worms, and night crawlers.  All can be found in a local pet shop or bait store, or they can usually order them for you.  If not, members of a local aquarium or herp club likely can supply starter cultures and information on how to culture them.  Or you can go to various sites on the web and order them from reputable growers. Of course, you can also read my book Culturing Live Foods (T.F.H. Publications, 2008) for tips on starting many different types of live food cultures.

Whiteworms do best at cooler temperatures, which is why these are stored in a fridge.

Whiteworms do best at cooler temperatures, which is why these are stored in a fridge.

Live food cultures need to be fed. Here whiteworms are eating a slice of bread.

Live food cultures need to be fed. Here whiteworms are eating a slice of bread.

Most breeders culture their own live foods.  There is a lot of excellent information out there about culturing live foods, including several excellent books.  Culturing your own foods gives you a chance to control every aspect of your fish’s diet.  More on this later…

Posted June 2nd, 2015.

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Preparing the Fishroom

By Mike Hellweg

When Ted first approached me with the idea for this contest, I jumped at the chance to help promote my favorite part of the hobby, breeding fish.  I knew I would have to step up my game a bit (Ted is a fierce competitor!), but that also would require some modifications to my fishroom.

First, I needed to have a place for all of the fry to grow out.  After all, if I was going to participate in this contest, I would also want to support my own club (the Missouri Aquarium Society, Inc. [MASI]) in our Breeders Award Program (BAP).  But that would mean holding the fry for 60 days.  I know, our contest rules include growing them out to 30 days, which is generally the safe point from which you know the fry will survive, but my club requires them to be at least 60 days old.  That means I have to tie up tanks for twice as long as Ted.  But it also means my fry will be closer to saleable size when I turn them in, so I can get them to local shops at this time, too.

I know some readers will want to know more about my fishroom.  It is approximately 12 feet by 14 feet.  In the walls and ceiling I installed R-30 insulation to cut down on heating and cooling costs.  It is heated and cooled with our home’s central air and heating.  This means I don’t have to worry too much about temperature control in individual tanks.  For electrical supply in the room, I added three extra ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI)  protected circuits just for the fishroom.  One is on a timer and runs the lights, another is on all the time and is for any extra filters/heaters that I might need, and the third is extra, in case I want to run something extra at some point.  All of the tanks are filtered with air driven sponge filters powered by a linear piston air pump, and all of them contain live plants.

All of the tanks are drilled with overflows that go to a floor drain, so water changes are easy;  I just run a hose from my 220 gallon water holding system to each tank for a few minutes and let the old water flow into the drain.  This system consists of four 55 gallon drums plumbed together.  The water is treated, heated, aerated and circulated between the drums until needed.  If a tank needs a bit more cleaning, I can drain individual tanks into a line that runs around the room and goes to the floor drain.  I can also add hang on filters if needed, but I only use these when I need to clean a tank.  Lighting is supplied by power compact florescent lights and by low power consumption commercial shoplights.  To control humidity and prevent mold growth, I also added an exhaust fan that turns on automatically when the room humidity gets above 50%.  This just dumps the humid air to the outside, and pulls in fresh, conditioned air from the rest of the house.

In my fishroom, I have a dozen 30-gallon breeders.  Those are excellent grow out tanks, each will hold dozens or even hundreds of fry, depending on the species.  I can even grow out fry of several species in one tank, if they are compatible in size and temperament.  But even so, that means I can only grow out a dozen or so species at a time.  I need more room.  Fortunately, I have eight more 30-gallon “box” tanks from a local wholesaler that went out of business a few years ago that have just been sitting there, waiting for me to come up with something to do with them.  They are called “box” tanks because they are shaped like a fish box – just a bit larger – two foot square and just under a foot deep.  They are used in the trade to hold a box of fish each.  With their large surface area and shallow depth, they can be stacked four high in the fishroom.  This rack of tanks will only take up 8 square feet of floor space while giving me 32 square feet of tank floor space!  This is perfect for my fishroom, where space is at a premium.  So I begin this month setting up this rack up and starting to get these tanks ready to go.

Mikes newest addition to his fishroom, a rack for more 30-gallon breeder tanks.

Mike’s newest addition to his fishroom, a rack for more 30-gallon breeder tanks.

I also started conditioning fish for spawning.  That means tanks for males and tanks for females in many species.  I have a rack that holds 5 x 10 gallon tanks and 8 x 20 gallon “high” tanks that I designed for this purpose.  It will also give me extra room to isolate new fish (every fish, invert, and new plant coming into my fishroom gets at least one month’s quarantine) and rotate extra pairs in case I have to separate fish from the main pairs in the breeding tanks.

With other fish, conditioning just means setting up a tank with proper conditions and feeding them well, while letting nature take its course.  I have a wall of tanks set up just for this – a 30 long, 6 x 29 gallon tanks, 6 x 20 longs, 7 x 10 gallon tanks and 3 x 5 gallon cubes.  These will be used for most of my breeding attempts.

I have a set of extra grow out tanks in case things get out of hand and I get lucky with spawnings.  This consists of 4 x ½ ten gallon tanks (a specially made tank), 5 x 10 gallon tanks, 2 x 20 flats (made from two ten gallon tanks glued together – one with the back out and the other with the front out), and two fifty gallon flats (essentially a 75 gallon tank cut down to a foot deep).  In addition, outside of the fishroom I have setups for larger fish.  I have 7 forty breeders, a 58 breeder, and two 75’s.

A mated pair of Honduran Red Points Amititlania siquia in Mikes fishroom.

A mated pair of Honduran Red Points Amititlania siquia in Mike’s fishroom.

Finally, the last group of tanks will be my “secret weapon” that I plan to roll out in month two or month three.  More on that later – I don’t want to give too much away to Ted!

Posted June 2nd, 2015.

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Researcher: Male Desert Goby Fish “Put Courtship Before Childcare”

MELBOURNE, Victoria — After studying male desert goby fish, a team of Monash researchers has suggested that male sexual behavior is primed to produce the greatest number of offspring.

In the underwater world of desert goby fish, it is the males whose work is never done.

As exclusive parental guardians it is up to males to guard and fan the eggs – keeping them well-oxygenated and removing debris – while females flit about finding new mates.


Photo:P. Andreas Svensson.

Posted June 1st, 2015.

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Mike vs. Ted: A Breeder’s Challenge (Extended)

Ted Judy, in a moment of utter foolishness, challenged Mike Hellweg to a one-on-one fish breeding contest. The rules are simple: spawn fish, raise the fry to an age when they can be safely given to another hobbyist, and repeat. The species that are spawned will be assigned point values based on the system used by the Missouri Aquarium Society, Inc.’s (MASI) Breeders Award Program (BAP), which ranks fish based upon their breeding difficulty.

The contest is to span one year, beginning with the January 2010 issue of TFH and ending with the December 2010 issue. Ted and Mike will submit a spawning report to TFH each month, as well as talk about the strategies, successes, and failures they experience during the competition. Our intrepid breeders will also update a blog at so readers can get more frequent updates on what is going on in Mike’s and Ted’s fishrooms. TFH recently sat down with these master breeders to get some information about the contest, and learn a little more about the contestants:

Continue Reading…

Posted November 18th, 2009.

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