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AQUEON® Preset Heaters in Stores Now!

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AQUEON Preset Heaters

Compact in size and requiring no manual adjusting, the new Aqueon Preset Heaters take the guess work out of keeping tropical aquariums at the correct temperature. Each heater is preset to 78 degrees Fahrenheit with an automatic safety shut-off to avoid overheating and damage. They are made from shatter resistant materials, are fully submersible and have an LED indicator light to show when the heater is actively heating. The Aqueon Preset Heaters are available in 4 sizes and are suitable for 5 gallon through 75 gallon aquariums.

Posted May 18th, 2015.

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The 101 Best Freshwater Nano Species

New Release! Adventurous Aquarist Guide™ Series Introduces The 101 Best Freshwater Nano Species

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Freshwater nano tanks, or tanks under 20 gallons as the authors define them, have become increasingly popular over the past few years. There are hundreds of species available to aquarium keepers on a regular basis, so figuring out which ones to choose for these specialized tanks can be a daunting task. The 101 Best Freshwater Nano Species is the only field guide that helps you choose and keep fishes, plants, and invertebrates specifically for nano tanks. Written by two leading experts in the field of nano tanks, this fully illustrated guide will prepare you to keep these wonderful and fascinating animals successfully. Each entry is illustrated with a photo and features information on the species’ common name, scientific name, maximum length, native range, minimum aquarium size, feeding, and habitat. Plus, easy-to-use keys are provided to help quickly find fish sizes and behaviors. The species listed are specifically selected for hardiness, durability, attractiveness, and interesting behaviors, so you will have an excellent starting point for planning your nano tank. Adventurous Aquarist Guides™ are a critically acclaimed series dedicated to the art of aquarium keeping. Written by experts, these fully illustrated field guides offer the most in-depth information on the aquarium hobby.

 

About the Authors

Mark Denaro has been keeping freshwater aquariums for more than four decades, and has bred and propagated over 300 species of freshwater fishes and aquatic plants. He has owned an aquarium shop, a saltwater wholesale operation, and several aquarium and terrarium installation and maintenance companies, as well as Anubias Design, an online retailer of fishes, invertebrates, and plants. He writes for Tropical Fish Hobbyist and other magazines. Mark is a past president of the International Betta Congress and is the inaugural president of the American Labyrinth Fish Association. He lives with his family in Bensalem, Pennsylvania.

 

Rachel O’Leary currently keeps more than 100 freshwater aquariums for her business, Invertebrates by Msjinkzd, catering to interests that run from the smallest invertebrates to primitive monster fishes like bichirs and gars. She uses a growing network of contacts around the globe to source many uncommon micro-fishes and dwarf freshwater invertebrates, including shrimp, snails, cray fishes, and aquatic crabs, for the American market. A firm believer in the importance of shared knowledge, Rachel is also an unforgettable and knowledgeable presence at national and international aquarium conferences and society events. She lives with her husband and two children in Mount Wolf, Pennsylvania.

 

Posted May 14th, 2015.

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Best Plants for Beginners

By Lea Maddocks

As Lea Maddocks explains in the second part of her article in the December 2012 issue,  Setting Up a Successful Low-Tech Planted Tank Like a Pro, Part 2: Aquascaping and Maintaining Your Planted Tank, choosing aquatic plants that fit your skill level and fit the look that you want can be challenging. However, some plants have a reliable track record of doing well in low-tech setups.

Let’s start with the best epiphytic plants. These should not be planted in the substrate, instead they can be tied to rocks or stones and allowed to grow with their roots exposed.

Java fern and Java moss are both very hardy plants. Photograph by Gary Lange.

Java fern varieties (Microsprum pteropus) including regular, crested (aka ‘windelov’), and narrow leaf

Anubias species

Congo fern – Bolbitus heudelotii

Mosses, including Java moss

Next come floating plants. Similar to epiphytic plants, these should not be buried in the substrate. Instead they should be left floating freely in the aquarium. They are great for providing shade to skittish fish.

Duckweed is an easily grown floating plant, but be warned that it can easily reach plague proportions. Photograph by Albert Connelly, Jr.

Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum)

Lacefern/watersprite (Ceratopteris thalictroides)

Duckweed (Lemna minor)

Mosquito fern (Azolla caroliniana)

Brazillian pennywort (Hydrocotyle leucocephala)

Water lettuce

Some stem plants are appropriate for beginners. These must be planted in the substrate.

Green hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is a relatively easy-to-grow stem plant. Photograph by MP. & C. Piednoir.

Some ludwigia, including the red Ludwigia repens

Elodea/Egeria – Egeria densa

Green hygro (Hygrophila polysperma)

Water wisteria (Hygrophila difformis)

Lacefern/watersprite (Ceratopteris thalictroides, note this can be planted as a stem plant or left floating)

Brazillian penny wort (Hydrocotyle leucocephala)

Bacopa – Bacopa australis, B. monnieri, Bacopa caroliniana

Camboba

Myriophyllum mattogrossense

Amazon swords, the ozelot variety has red flecks and can be great for color

Rotala rotundifolia

Cryptocoryne species, especially browns like C. Wendtii, C. Lutens

Pearlweed (Hemiantus glomeraturs), which was formerly confused with H. micranthemoides

Saggitaria and dwarf sgaggitarita

Pygmy chain sword (Helanthium tenellus)

Posted May 14th, 2015.

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Book Excerpt: Reef Aquarium Fishes

Organized by family for easy reference, each profile in Reef Aquarium Fishes includes all essential care, feeding and husbandry advice. The species profiled include all available reef aquarium choices, with scores of seldom seen, rare and recently discovered species. Written by the worlds most-read, most respected expert on marine fishes for the home aquarium, The PocketExpert Guide to Reef Aquarium Fishes is a must-read for any fish enthusiasts.

About the Author

Scott W. Michael is an internationally recognized writer, underwater photographer, and marine biology researcher specializing in reef fishes. He is the author of the Pocket Expert Guide to Marine Fishes (Microcosm/TFH), the Reef Fishes  series (Microcosm/TFH), and Reef Sharks and Rays of the World (Microcosm/TFH).

Having studied biology and the University of Nebraska, he has been involved in research projects on sharks, rays, frogfishes, and the behavior of reef fishes. He has also served as a scientific consultant for National Geographic Explorer and the Discovery Channel. His work has led him from Cocos Island in the Eastern Pacific to various points in the Indo-Pacific as well as the Red Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and many Caribbean reefs.

A marine aquarist since boyhood, he has kept tropical fishes for more than 30 years, with many years of involvement in the aquarium world, including a period of retail store ownership. He is a partner in an extensive educational website on the coral reef environment, www.coralrealm.com.

Scott lives with his wife, underwater photographer Janine Cairns-Michael, and their Golden Retriever, Ruby, in Lincoln, Nebraska.

Excerpt from Hogfishes (Genus Bodianus)

The hogfishes are some of the hardiest members of the wrasse family. As a whole, they are durable aquarium fish that readily accept most aquarium fare, while ignoring all live corals. Most can be kept in reef aquariums as juveniles, but as they grow they will eat worms, snails, small clams, and crustaceans. The size of the aquarium needed to harbor a hogfish will depend on the species—most small to medium-sized members of the family (i.e., those species that attain a maximum length of less than 10 in. [25 cm]) can be kept in tanks ranging from 20 to 75 gallons (76 to 285 L), while more robust species require a tank of 135 gallons (513 L) or larger once they reach adult size. They need hiding places as well as ample swimming room.

Hogfishes, unlike certain other wrasses, do not bury in the substrate, so the depth of sand in your tank is of little concern. However, several of these fishes will hunt buried prey items by blowing jets of water at the finer substrate. This predatory behavior is fascinating to watch and will also stir the upper layers of the substrate.

Spanish Hogfish (Bodianus rufus): a graphic warning about hogfish feeding habits—motile invertebrates, such as brittle stars, are likely to meet this fate. Photograph by Scott W. Michael.

Many hogfishes will not tolerate the presence of members of their own species in the same tank, but they can be kept with other members of their genus. One caution: avoid placing two similarly colored species in the same tank.
As far as unrelated species are concerned, hogfishes can be belligerent toward smaller fishes, more docile species, or those fishes introduced after the hogfish has become an established resident of the tank. The moderate- to large-sized hogfishes should be kept with fish species that can hold their own, like lionfishes, squirrelfishes, soldierfishes, smaller groupers, goatfishes, angelfishes, hawkfishes, medium-sized damselfishes, sand perches, and less aggressive triggerfishes. Adding a hogfish to an established community of aggressive fishes, however, can cause the hogfish to remain hidden most of the time and never acclimate. Of course, large frogfishes, scorpionfishes, and groupers will eat any hogfish that they can swallow whole. While the larger hogfish species simply won’t fit into the average reef tank community, some of the smaller members of this group are worthy of consideration. Choose carefully, based on size and feeding habits.

Bodianus mesothorax. Photograph by Scott W. Michael.

Bodianus mesothorax
Mesothorax Hogfish
Maximum Length: 7.5 in. (19 cm).
Aquarium Suitability: This species is generally durable and hardy, with most individuals acclimating to the home aquarium.
Reef Compatibility: Safe with stony corals. Safe with soft corals. Threat to ornamental crustaceans. Threat to other invertebrates.

Bodianus mesothorax juvenile. Photograph by Scott W. Michael.

Bodianus diana. Photograph by Scott W. Michael.

Bodianus diana
Diana’s Hogfish
Maximum Length: 9.8 in. (25 cm).
Aquarium Suitability: This species is generally durable and hardy, with most individuals acclimating to the home aquarium.
Reef Compatibility: Safe with stony corals. Safe with soft corals. Threat to ornamental crustaceans. Threat to other invertebrates.

Bodianus perditio. Photograph by Scott W. Michael.

Bodianus perditio
Goldspot Hogfish
Maximum Length: 31.5 in. (80 cm).
Aquarium Suitability: This species is generally durable and hardy, with most individuals acclimating to the home aquarium.
Reef Compatibility: Safe with stony corals. Safe with soft corals. Threat to ornamental crustaceans. Threat to other invertebrates.

Bodianus izuensis. Photograph by Scott W. Michael.

Bodianus izuensis
Izu Hogfish
Maximum Length: 4.3 in. (11 cm).
Aquarium Suitability: This species is generally durable and hardy, with most individuals acclimating to the home aquarium.
Reef Compatibility: Safe with stony corals. Safe with soft corals. Threat to ornamental crustaceans. Occasional threat to some other invertebrates.

Excerpted from the PocketExpert Guide to Reef Aquarium Fishes by Scott W. Michael. ©Microcosm/ TFH Publications. Used by permission.

Posted October 16th, 2014.

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Scientists Discover a New Species of Beaked Whale

Image: Male specimen of Mesoplodon hotaula that washed up on Desroches Island in the Seychelles in 2009, shown with men from the island. It was found by Wayne Thompson (far right in picture) and Lisa Thompson of the Island Conservation Society of the Seychelles. Image credit: Lisa Thompson

Image: Male specimen of Mesoplodon hotaula that washed up on Desroches Island in the Seychelles in 2009, shown with men from the island. It was found by Wayne Thompson (far right in picture) and Lisa Thompson of the Island Conservation Society of the Seychelles. Image credit: Lisa Thompson

Beaked whales, a widespread but little-known family of toothed whales distantly related to sperm whales, are found in deep ocean waters beyond the edge of the continental shelf throughout the world’s oceans.Researchers have identified a new species of mysterious beaked whale based on the study of seven animals stranded on remote tropical islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans over the past 50 years.

“They are rarely seen at sea due to their elusive habits, long dive capacity and apparent low abundance for some species. Understandably, most people have never heard of them,” says international team leader, Dr Merel Dalebout, a visiting research fellow at UNSW.

The study of the new species, Mesoplodon hotaula, is published in the journal Marine Mammal Science.

The first specimen was a female found on a Sri Lankan beach more than 50 years ago.

On 26 January 1963, a 4.5 metre-long, blue-grey beaked whale washed up at Ratmalana near Colombo. The then director of the National Museums of Ceylon, P.E.P (Paulus) Deraniyagala, described it as a new species, and named it Mesoplodon hotaula, after the local Singhala words for ‘pointed beak’.

However, two years later, other researchers reclassified this specimen as an existing species, Mesoplodon ginkgodens, named for the tusk-like teeth of the adult males that are shaped like the leaves of a ginkgo tree.

“Now it turns out that Deraniyagala was right regarding the uniqueness of the whale he identified. While it is closely related to the ginkgo-toothed beaked whale, it is definitely not the same species,” says Dr Dalebout.

The researchers used a combination of DNA analysis and physical characteristics to identify the new species from seven specimens found stranded in Sri Lanka, the Gilbert Islands (now Kiribati), Palmyra Atoll in the Northern Line Islands near Hawai’i, the Maldives, and the Seychelles.

The new specimens are held by various institutions and groups, including the US Smithsonian National Museum in Washington DC, the Island Conservation Society in the Seychelles, and the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The genetic analyses were conducted as part of an international collaboration with the US NMFS Southwest Fisheries Science Center and Oregon State University.

The researchers were able to get good quality DNA from tissue samples from only one specimen. For the others, they drilled the bones of the whales in order to analyse short fragments of ‘ancient DNA’ relying on techniques commonly used with old sub-fossil material from extinct species.

The researchers also studied all other known beaked whale species to confirm the distinctiveness of Deraniyagala’s whale, including six specimens of the closely related, gingko-toothed beaked whale.

“A number of species in this group are known from only a handful of animals, and we are still finding new ones, so the situation with Deraniyagala’s whale is not that unusual,” Dr Dalebout says.

“For example, the ginkgo-toothed beaked whale, first described in 1963, is only known from about 30 strandings and has never been seen alive at sea with any certainty. It’s always incredible to me to realise how little we really do know about life in the oceans. There’s so much out there to discover. ”

Over the last 10 years or so, two other new beaked whales have come to light; both through research in which Dr Dalebout was involved. In 2002, Mesoplodon perrini or Perrin’s beaked whale, was described from the eastern North Pacific, and in 2003, Mesoplodon traversii, the spade-toothed whale, was described from the Southern Ocean. Both species are known from only about five animals each.

With the re-discovery of Mesoplodon hotaula, there are now 22 recognised species of beaked whales.

 

Originally published here: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/02/140205103540.htm.

Posted March 16th, 2014.

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