A tank with herbivorous fish decorated with artificial plants. Photograph by Jeremy Demas.
By David E. Boruchowitz
There is a bit of snobbery in the hobby regarding action ornaments, plastic plants, and colored gravel. Some seasoned aquarists look down their noses at the use of such artificiality, but many people, particularly but not exclusively beginners and youngsters, love a neon substrate with fluorescent plantings and burping treasure chests.
The snobbery is unwarranted, and even a bit hypocritical. How so? Well, often the aquarist decrying fake plants uses lengths of PVC pipe as refuges in breeding tanks. Or, the disparager of colored gravel relies on bare-bottom tanks for raising fry. Obviously, plastic pipe and glass substrate do not occur in any natural fish habitat any more than purple gravel and silver Amazon swordplants.
So, what’s the explanation?
Some hobbyists entertain that there are two types of tanks: display and utility. Utility setups use only the bare essentials and are not intended to be decorative. Display tanks are ornamental, and they try to replicate a natural fish habitat. This black and white distinction does not hold up, however, and I have seen both lushly planted breeding tanks and bare bottom display tanks. I’ve even seen an entire fish house of a very serious breeder that has at least one ceramic castle in every single aquarium. There are no hard and fast rules. In addition, “natural” setups are mostly anything but.
Plastic plants and driftwood decorate this goldfish setup. Photograph by Jeremy Demas.
Usually display tanks are not really representative of any natural habitat. Most hobbyists only want a pretty aquascape and do not try to create an actual representation, and even many of the biotope systems expressly intended to be accurate replications of a specific habitat fail to really make the mark. There is nothing at all wrong with any aquarium decor that is safe for the fish, whether it pretends to be natural or not, whether it is collected in the wild or created in a factory. Unwarranted snobbery aside, however, there is a basis for the observable fact that the majority of seasoned aquarists prefer gravel that is not dyed over its garish counterpart, live plants over plastic or silk ones, and rocks and driftwood over divers, skulls, and toxic waste barrels.
Most often—but certainly not always—the deeper one gets into fishkeeping, the more one’s primary appreciation is of fish and their natural ecology. We look at our fish as marvels of nature, and we want our aquaria to display them that way. Yes, I am among those who prefer a more natural decor, but I also have bare bottom tanks with PVC tubes. I also use plastic plants as fry refuges in breeding tanks and have no aversion to ceramic or resin decorations if they serve some purpose in one of my setups and I have them on hand.
So, what’s wrong with colored gravel, plastic plants, and bubbling divers? Nothing! Go with whatever floats your sunken, bubbling boat.
The cephalopod believed to have killed ichthyosaurs arranged their vertebral disks in linear patterns in such a way that it resembled the pattern of sucker discs on a cephalopod tentacle, with each vertebra strongly resembling a coleoid sucker. Photograph by Mark McMenamin.
During the Triassic bus-sized ichthyosaurs (marine reptiles) filled the niche occupied by predatory whales today. They were considered top predators until a paleontologist studying fossils in Nevada proposed a startling explanation for the ordered placement of ichthyosaur bones—a giant cephalopod ate the 45-foot reptiles.
Like the mythical kraken, this gargantuan octopus-like creature would have been an intelligent predator, able to drown or otherwise kill full-grown ichthyosaur. Of course, being a soft-bodied invertebrate, it would not be likely to have left fossils, so its careful arrangement of its prey’s bones may be the only record we’ll ever have of it.
In viewing the map, keep in mind that the entire scale runs only from a salinity of 30 to one of 40, so although the differences depicted are significant, it is still the case that the chemical makeup of seawater is much the same everywhere, in sharp contrast to the chemistry of different freshwater environments.
It is especially fascinating to see the visual representation of the dilution effects well out to sea of large rivers like the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Ganges, as well as the influence of heavy terrestrial rainfall in the Northern Pacific.
The world's smallest aquarium (and smallest aquarium net). Photograph by Anatoly Konenko http://www.crookedbrains.net/2011/05/worlds-smallest-aquarium.html
By David E. Boruchowitz
How do you do a water change on an aquarium that holds only 2 teaspoons (10 ml) of water? With a syringe!
That’s how micro-miniature artist Anatoly Konenko of Omsk, Russia fills his inch-long planted tank so as not to disturb the aquascape. This is certainly taking the nano tank craze to its extreme. The tank is so small that the meniscus (the U-shape of the water surface in a vessel caused by the water climbing the sides by capillary action) is clearly visible. The aquarium is populated with recently-free-swimming zebra danio fry, though not on a permanent basis. Here’s a video of the tank:
And if you want to see some similar ideas, check out our article from a couple of years ago:
Aquarists often overfeed their fish, and obesity, liver disease, and other consequences are frequent problems for captive fish. The usual explanation is that fish have poor mechanisms to stop feeding, since in the wild a glut of food rarely occurs.
Recent research indicates that many predatory fishes have much larger gut capacity than they can normally use. This enables them to binge when they encounter a rich food source and pack away energy reserves for times of famine.
For aquarists this means that the problem is even worse than we thought. The increased gut capacity of predatory fishes permits us to really overfeed them. Not only do they have no switch to end feeding behavior when they have consumed their daily needs, they have enough room to eat way beyond that point. Fish should always be a bit hungry, and it appears that many predatory species should always be fed way under their capacity to stuff food in.