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Plants for a 45-Gallon Paludarium

By Bill Brissette

The 45-gallon paludarium. Photograph by Bill Brissette.

In order to complete the 45-gallon paludarium, a wide variety of plants, both terrestrial and aquatic, were used. Here is complete list of those plants.

Terrestrial Plants

Liverwort Conocephalum sp.

Bolbitis Davallia Edanyoa difformis

Creeping Fig Ficus pumila

Hemianthus callitrichoides “Cuba”

Red Leaf Hibiscus Hibiscus acetosella

Marcgravia sp.

Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha

Paradrymonia campostyla

Button Fern Pellaea rotundifolia

Little Red Tree Peperomia sp.

Tiny Tears Pilea sp.

Pleurothallis allenii

Rhaphidophora hayi

Mini Pellia Riccardia sp.

Monkey Plant Ruellia makoyana

Schismatoglottis sp.

Pretty in Pink Tolumnia sp.


Aquatic Plants

Anubias Barteri var. “nana”

Anubias Barteri var. nana “petite”

Cryptocoryne wendtii

Dwarf Hair Grass Eleocharis sp.

Weeping Moss Fontinalis antipyretica

Pennywort Hydrocotyle verticillata

Dwarf Pennywort Hydrocotyle tripatita

Amazon Frogbit Limnobium laevigatum

Red Root Floater Phyllanthus fluitans

Dwarf Rotala Rotala rotundifolia

Dwarf Sag Sagittaria subulata

To read the entire article and see the finished paludarium, please click here

Posted June 28th, 2011.

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Float Away Island

By Bill Brissette

Without strong enough glue, the cork island floated away from the expanded PVC.

I wanted to write a note about using silicone with expanded PVC. Expanded PVC is a great material because of its light weight, easy machinability, and smooth, food-safe surface. Unfortunately, its surface is one of its downfalls as well: While it is readily glued to itself with PVC cement for plumbing, silicone has a hard time sticking to the surface.

After writing the latest installment of “Adventures in Aquascaping” and setting the tank up for a week of rinsing, the cork island in the center of the tank floated up and away. The silicone had stuck just fine to the cork, but not to the surface of the PVC. At least, it did not stick well enough to overcome the buoyancy of the cork. The other parts of the hardscape seem fine, especially where I used a lot of silicone, and where it is above the waterline. But this was a major setback that could have been avoided.

I would like to experiment with a few glues to be able to tell you the best one for this particular application, but I think an expanding polyurethane foam glue may be more suitable than the silicone in places where it is not visible.
One thing is for sure though, and that is that the porous center of the expanded PVC sheet is far more receptive to bonding than the smooth surface is.

To repair the float-away island, I plan on fully drying the insert and using the random orbital sander to roughen and gouge the surface of the PVC where it will be reglued so the glue has a chance to grab hold. Then, when I return to my rinsing phase, I plan on loading up the submerged cork parts with stone, so that their buoyancy doesn’t defeat the bond prior to planting. Simply adding weight during this phase, will emulate the substrate that will weigh things down once the tank has been planted.

In future projects, I will be sure to really roughen all surfaces that are to be glued, to avoid this problem.

Posted May 25th, 2011.

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A 45-Gallon Tank Insert

By Bill Brissette

The vector drawing the author used to cut his blank for the plastic insert.

When planning an intricate insert for an aquascaping project, it is especially important to plan ahead. Included here is the author used to cut the plastic insert. Learn more about how he built the insert at

Posted May 11th, 2011.

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Snail Control in the Planted Tank

By Mark Denaro

I’d rather spend time enjoying my tanks than cleaning them, so it is important to have an efficient crew of workers in each tank.  For planted tanks, I need a crew that will take care of any algae growth and something to ensure that the snail population doesn’t explode.

Keeping a cleanup crew in a planted tank make the aquarist's job easier.

A lot of folks like to use snails for algae control but I’m just not in that habit.  Ramshorn and pond snails can breed at tremendous rates and mystery snails can eat leaves, so I gravitated to using various loricariid catfish for algae control.  Since pond and ramshorn snails tend to travel on Florida-grown plants, their introduction to a planted tank is almost inevitable.  In response, I also developed the habit of adding some type of botia loach that would eat the snails to every tank to keep them in check.

It should be noted that I’m using the term “botia” to represent the group.  Many of the fish that were classified in the genus Botia 20 years ago have since been moved into new genera, as the various subgenera have been raised to genus level.

I always try to size the botia to the tank.  While clown loaches are still the most popular of the botias, they’re not always the best choice for planted tanks.  They get rather large (up to 24 inches) and they can easily uproot plants as they grow.  As a consequence, I’ve tended to use some of the smaller species over the years and the yoyo loach  B. lohachata has become my favorite of that group.  It is attractive and particularly good at snail control,  but it grows to 5 inches so it’s still a little large for a lot of tanks.

As times and the availability of species changed over the years, I started adding Amano shrimp Caridinia japonica into my worker mix.  Unfortunately, many of the loaches would consider shrimp to be part of their diet, so adding the Amanos complicates the selection of a botia

Fortunately, dwarf botias Yasuhikotakia (Botia) sidthimunki, have become available in the aquarium trade again after a long absence.  This beautiful species is one of the best botias for planted aquariums.  It is a peaceful, active, diurnal species, so it has a big advantage over many of the other botias which are primarily nocturnal.  Y. sidthimunki grows to approximately 2 inches in length and consequently won’t uproot plants or pose any threat to adult shrimp.

The dwarf loach Yasuhikotakia sidthimunki tends not to bother shrimp.

Because the Amano shrimp larvae require a marine phase, their successful reproduction is not going to take place in a planted aquarium and we don’t have to worry about the dwarf loaches eating young shrimp. If you are using red crystal shrimp or any of the other species that reproduce in freshwater and want them to reproduce in your tank, you may not want to add any type of botia.

Amano shrimp consume algae and cannot reproduce successfully in freshwater, so their population will not go out of control.

Recent years have also seen the introduction of a number of interesting snails to the hobby.  Of particular interest to planted tank enthusiasts are the various members of the genus Neritina that can live in freshwater.  Similar to the Amano shrimp, these species require brackish or marine water for proper larval development and consequently cannot reproduce in the freshwater aquarium.  That fact, combined with their appetite for algae, makes them wonderful species to use as workers in planted tanks.  The botias will attack them in the same way that they will attack less desirable species, though, and this can present a challenge for the hobbyist.

If you want to use nerites but don’t want to risk population explosions of other snail species, it is important to treat every plant that goes into the tank with aluminum sulphate, potassium permanganate, or some other chemical that will kill not only snails but snail eggs that may be attached to the plants.  The aquarist must also remain ever vigilant in case any snails survive this process.  Any other snail species must be removed from the tank as soon as the hobbyist realizes that they are present.

Posted July 16th, 2010.

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Keeping the Tank Looking Nice

By Mark Denaro

The tank I had available to use for this aquascape was a 65 that had originally been set up as a marine tank.  It had a really old metal halide bulb for lighting.  So, I drained the tank with the intention of setting it right back up.  Well, right about that time we got hit with bad weather so the two 100 pound bags of gravel that were sitting on my porch were suddenly inaccessible.  I had to wait for the snow to melt before I could set the tank up.

The 65-gallon Leiden-style tank in progress.

Unfortunately, I had already taken the driftwood out of another tank for use in this aquascape.  It was an old piece that was fully waterlogged so I removed the suction cups.  I thought that it would be okay to let it sit for a little while, figuring that in the worst case scenario I could weigh it down with a rock for a couple of days and then it would be fine.  Well, that was a mistake.  It was more like a couple of weeks before I was able to get the tank set up and by that time the wood was pretty dry and rather buoyant.  I was still able to hold it down with a rock but the rock will be needed for a lot longer than I had intended.  In fact, when I submitted the first pics of the tank to TFH, I got an email back asking about the rock and why I didn’t include any information about it in the article so I had to take the wood out and reshoot the pics.  As time has passed, the wood is pretty close to staying down on its own.

Another issue that I had to deal with this time was lighting.  I left the halide on thinking that it would be the best way to really boost growth in order to get the tank looking the way I wanted it to as quickly as possible due to the time constraints in getting the pictures taken for the article series.  I also left it on 24/7 for the first week.  As I said before, it was an old bulb and the spectral output was no longer what it should be so it encouraged a lot of algal growth both on the glass and on the plants.  That’s something I almost never experience so it was pretty frustrating.  If you look at pics of the tank, you can see the algae on the side glass and particularly on the leaves of the Saururus cernuus.  Another drawback to the halide is that I didn’t like the colors in the tank when I shot pics.  So, the lighting was changed to T5s that were discussed in Part 3.  That improved the look of the tank and the quality of the pictures.

A bit of algae growing on the avenue plant.

Plant growth has generally been very good, and the Gymnocoronis in particular is growing like a weed, and will grow out of the water within a couple of days of pruning.  The E. tenellus is also spreading quite well.  Surprisingly, the val pretty much went to mush so it looks like there is a hole in the aquascape right now.  That is rare but does happen occasionally.  It is coming back with a vengeance, though, so hopefully it will fill in the right rear corner by the time I have to shoot pics for the last installment of this series.  I wasn’t able to get as much Marsilea crenata as I wanted for the foreground so I may switch that out for another species in order to get that space filled in more quickly.  Even if I do that, I will still leave the Marsilea there as that really is the species that I want to have there for the long term.

Posted June 9th, 2010.

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