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Many different stones may be used in iwagumi layouts. Master aquascaper Takashi Amano discusses one popular and readily available kind—ryuoh seki—and describes its use in his recent aquascape.
See the full article on TFH Digital http://www.tfhdigital.com/tfh/mar_2014#pg49
Photo Credit: Mike Tuccinardi
Over the past 50 years, much has changed in aquarist culture when it comes to developing an aquarium’s milieu. The art of decorating the inside of our home aquariums has evolved considerably, reflecting not only personal taste, but current trends and cultural backgrounds as well. Recently, the predominant trend has been toward creating a more natural look, as aquarium owners seek to capture a little slice of nature in their living rooms. This shift has brought about an enormous interest in natural décor—in particular, with something common to many freshwater habitats worldwide: driftwood.
Ludwigia x lacustris is a naturally occurring cross between its parent plants, L. brevipes and L. palustris. Photo Credit: Jeff Ucciardo
Color is one design element that can add great contrast and visual drama to an aquascape. In the culture of aquatic plants, this is typically discussed in terms of red plants and green plants—as it probably should be, since the bulk of aquatic plants fall somewhere loosely in these two color categories. However, red and green are not the be-all and end-all of colors in the aquatic plant spectrum. Even within each of these two opposing colors is a wide range of shades and hues—greens come in dark and light, olive and emerald, lime and forest, while reds vary between scarlet, maroon, burgundy, fuchsia, and so on.
In the next couple of columns I’ll be exploring some of the additional colors that aquatic plants can display, starting this month with yellows and golds.
Generally speaking, yellow foliage is a bad sign. In most plants it indicates some form of nutrient deficiency, and starving plants for the sake of color contrast is, of course, rather counterproductive. It’s also extremely difficult to induce in just one plant in the tank for contrast purposes. Fortunately, a handful of aquatic plant species and cultivars offer this part of the spectrum when in perfect health.
Although many Ludwigia species, L. ovalis and L. inclinata var. verticillata “Cuba,” for instance, can display yellow-gold to orange foliage in certain conditions, two species in particular come to mind as being more consistently gold than others, one being a hybrid with the other as one of its parents. Ludwigia brevipes, native mostly to Virginia and the Carolinas, is the species in question. Though extremely high lighting and fertilization can produce orange-red coloration in the growth tips of the plant, its overall color is more of a gold than a red and can act as a foil to both green and red plants. Though not as demanding as many of the more intensely colored Ludwigia species (e.g., L. glandulosa, L. senegalensis, or L. inclinata), L. brevipes does like fairly strong lighting.
The hybrid, Ludwigia x lacustris, is a naturally occurring cross between L. brevipes and L. palustris. Interestingly, its distribution includes isolated pockets scattered well outside the fairly narrow range of L. brevipes (L. palustris being a rather cosmopolitan species between its natural distribution and naturalized introductions), including points along the Atlantic coast between Rhode Island and Georgia. This could be evidence that L. brevipes once had a wider distribution, or perhaps the plant has hopped from pond to pond, stuck to the foot of a goose (I firmly believe this is a major source of so-called “invasive” plants that occur natively in nearby states, but that’s a debate for another day). In any case, L. x lacustris is colored very similarly to L. brevipes, with slightly broader leaves. Like L. brevipes, it will attain some degree of reddish-orange coloration in the most intense growing conditions, but it’s otherwise more or less golden in color.
Both L. brevipes and L. x lacustris are most easily obtained via trade with other hobbyists, but L. brevipes is distributed by a handful of international nurseries.
Ammannia pedicellata “Golden”
Known as Nesaea pedicellata prior to the recent studies resulting in the folding of the genus Nesaea into the genus Ammannia, A. pedicellata “golden” is one of the most spectacularly colorful aquatic plants I’ve ever had the fortune to lay eyes on. Its only drawback is that it’s a somewhat finicky plant with sensitivity to both nutrient deficiencies and excesses, requiring very consistent fertilization. In emersed culture, I’ve found it’s rather prone to both spontaneous and seasonal diebacks, though it always seems to bounce back eventually, no matter how close I think it is to death. Despite its sensitivities, a healthy hedge of this cultivar is positively stunning. The leaves are a bright golden yellow, and the stems offer great contrast with their magenta hue. The colors are even more riotous in emersed form, where the new leaves display bright orange fading to gold as they age, the stems are more red than pink, and the flowers add an intense pink-purple to the mix.
Though the supply is limited, A. pedicellata “golden” is cultivated in the United States by at least one major nursery, and it can be special-ordered from time to time from a plant-savvy local fish store (LFS), online retailer, or fellow hobbyist.
Lysimachia nummularia “Aurea”
L. nummularia “aurea” is perhaps one of the most easily obtained aquatic plants out there due to the fact that it’s not solely used by the aquarium trade. Although it’s a true aquatic, capable of sustained submersed growth, L. nummularia is also a popular terrestrial plant, used as both a ground cover and as a filler plant in hanging baskets and planters. It’s readily obtainable at any nursery and many LFS and pond plant retailers.
Due to its uniquely colored bright, lemony foliage, the cultivar “aurea” has virtually replaced the wild-type plant, which is a more mundane, medium-green color (for those interested, the green version is still available from both terrestrial and aquatic nurseries, albeit in much smaller quantities).
A prolific grower, aquarium-cultivated L. nummularia “aurea” sheds the creeping habit of its terrestrial form and grows as a strongly upright plant with medium-sized round leaves. Though best coloration is achieved in strong lighting with CO2 supplementation (lower light can result in a somewhat lime-green cast to the otherwise lemony foliage), the plant is not particular about its water parameters, and, save for a fondness for high nitrate levels, it does not require any particular fertilization in moderate growing conditions.
As a side note, this plant has the dubious honor of having numerous common names—among them “golden creeping Jenny,” “golden lloydiella,” “golden pond penny,” “moneywort” (which it shares with numerous other species, including fellow aquatic Bacopa monnieri), “herb twopence,” “twopenny thot,” and quite possibly others I’ve yet to hear. This is, of course, a prime example of why plants should be identified by scientific names.
Golden Melon Sword
A recent cultivar developed by Florida Aquatic Nurseries, the golden melon sword (Echinodorus osiris “Florida gold”) was released for sale in aquarium shops in 2012. Its needs are few, much like its original form, the ubiquitous melon sword, requiring little more than moderate lighting and sufficient fertilization at the roots. New leaves are pinkish, fading to a greenish gold as they mature. Though rarely employed in formal aquascaping due to their large size and bulky leaves, sword plants make excellent centerpieces in specimen tanks or casually planted setups of sufficient size.
In addition to “Florida gold,” Florida Aquatic Nurseries also introduced a gold-and-green-variegated melon sword, E. osiris “marble,” in the same year. An interesting alternative to more typical white-and-green variegation seen in other plants, this plant can offer a touch of gold in place of the solid-colored foliage of “Florida gold.” The more established, readily available variegated form of E. cordifolius, “marble queen,” serves much the same function, though the variegation is less obvious in its submersed form.
Hygrophila polysperma “Ceylon”
Though legally unavailable to US hobbyists (H. polysperma is on the federal ban list), this gold variant of a popular and widespread aquarium plant deserves mention for offering golden hues for even very-low-lighting aquaria. A rampant grower frequently used for “nitrate busting” in the establishment of new tanks, H. polysperma is one of those plants that is nearly impossible to kill. “Ceylon” is apparently no exception and offers another interesting coloration from this species (H. polysperma comes in a fascinating array of shape and color morphs—one could probably create a reasonably attractive Dutch-style aquascape with just this species). With narrower, longer leaves than the more common green version of the plant, this is apparently a native variation originating in Sri Lanka, introduced into the European hobby sometime in the 1970s.
As a side note, I have no idea if the name “Ceylon” is a reference to the plant’s origin locality of Sri Lanka (formerly the British colony of Ceylon up until 1948) or a reference to Ceylon yellow, a mustardy gold color associated with yellow sapphires from the same country. Both are very much applicable to this plant, and both place and color names are frequently used in describing variants and cultivars of plants.
There is also a yellowish cultivar of the classic dwarf Anubias, A. barteri var. nana “gold.” Though not truly yellow, the yellow-green leaves of this cultivar do offer great contrast to greener plants and red species alike. New leaves are the yellowest, gaining greener hue as they mature (this process is not unique to this cultivar; A. b. var. coffeefolia leaves do much the same, except the yellow new leaves mature to a deep hunter green). A. b. var. nana “gold” is a rather rare cultivar, in part due to its snail-paced growth, reportedly even slower than the already slow-growing standard A. barteri var. nana.
Go for the Gold
With a diverse selection of gold and yellow plants available to the hobbyist, there should be something available for any kind of tank, and yellow-stem species are particularly good for increasing variety and contrast between hedges in Dutch-style aquascapes.
Next time, I’ll introduce some great options for adding purples to your palette of aquarium plants!
Author: Amanda Wenger (Originally published in our March 2014 Issue)
It is quite evident that the iwagumi layout style has become very popular in the world when you look at the results of this year’s International Aquatic Plant Layout Contest. The very first Nature Aquarium layout that I created was an iwagumi layout as well. However, the iwagumi layout entries in the recent contests have been quite a bit more like a landscape on land compared to those that were submitted in the earlier years. Although the iwagumi layout style in the image of a vast grassy field or the one in the image of a precipitous mountain were also my original creations, the recent contest entries are more realistic and more like diorama-type layouts.
Comparing Diorama and Iwagumi Layouts
Although a diorama-style layout, which is created by using aquatic plants quite skillfully, is worthy of high regard, it can present a challenge as an aquascape in which fish are kept, such as a Nature Aquarium. The presence of fish may not seem appropriate for those that are created quite realistically. An iwagumi layout in a Nature Aquarium is fundamentally intended to include fish, even if it is created in the image of a grassy field or a mountain range. Since the Nature Aquarium aquascape and fish go together well, it is not unnatural to have fish in it. The very presence of fish makes an iwagumi layout appear more natural as an aquascape.
A Nature Aquarium is an abstract expression of nature rather than a practical visualization of nature. Therefore, precisely recreating a landscape on land is not its intention. A layout that depicts a grassy field or a mountain range is fundamentally a representation of a landscape under water (aquascape). Therefore, it does not reproduce a minute detail of a landscape or produce a small tree or waterfall in a layout as is done in a diorama-style layout that has been modeled after a landscape on land. This is the biggest difference between a Nature Aquarium layout style and a diorama layout style.
The abstract expression in a Nature Aquarium resembles an expression in a Japanese garden. Natural scenery, such as mountains, rivers, ocean, and islands, are depicted using rocks and sand in a Japanese garden. However, it is unquestionably an abstract expression of nature. The interpretation of the scenery is left up to the individual’s imagination.
Likewise, a Nature Aquarium incorporates various sceneries and appearances of nature into a layout, and viewers can expand their own ideas because it is an abstract expression. For example, a bush of stem plants under water may conjure up an image of a mountain with trees or a dense forest. However, it is actually a bush of aquatic plants that fish hide in at the same time. The aquascape does not appear unnatural if fish are swimming in it.
Creating a Flowing River
The layout in this article is an iwagumi layout that features hakkai-seki stones, which is a continuation of the theme from the previous article. The first one in the series of iwagumi layouts was an aquascape of underwater scenery with stones. The stones in the layout were also river stones that were similar to hakkai-seki stones. River stones are distinctly rounded. No other stones are as suitable as those for recreating scenery in a flowing river. Such underwater sceneries with stones exist in many parts of the world.
In some places, such as the Amazon, where the water level changes drastically between the dry season and the rainy season, the stones that were exposed during a dry season are often under water during a wet season with fishes swimming around them. The types of plants that grow in such areas are aquatic plants that take on a terrestrial form in the dry season and change their form to a submersed form during the rainy season. In this layout, stones were arranged by keeping the water flow in mind.
Then, hair grass, cobra grass, and Cuba pearl grass were planted after mounding soil around the stones. The hair grass in particular develops thin, long, submersed leaves and enhances the impression of the presence of water along with a school of cardinal tetras. It is a plant well-suited for creating a natural appearance in an aquascape. It sways in the current created by the outflow of the filter and conjures up the image of underwater scenery in nature.
Short-growing cobra grass and Cuba pearl grass were added to the layout, since hair grass, if used alone, can hide the stone arrangement and makes the aquascape plain and less interesting. Planting these short-growing aquatic plants in front of the hair grass keeps the stones from getting hidden too much and enhances the appearance of the stone arrangement.
(Originally published in our January 2014 issue)
There are a number of elements to consider when setting up a planted tank—filtration, lighting, livestock, hardscape—but it would seem that substrate is one of those things that especially intimidates the inexperienced hobbyist. With a dizzying array of substrate products on the market and veteran hobbyists that swear by every single one of them, it’s no surprise that it can be hard to pick out something that serves as the foundation of your planted setup. Which substrate is the best? Much like the matter of CO2 supplementation I addressed in TFH November 2013, this is not a question with a clear-cut answer. Ultimately, any type of substrate can work so long as the hobbyist keeps in mind the ways it impacts the delivery of nutrients to the plants.
What Does Substrate Do For Plants?
First (and arguably foremost), the substrate acts as a place for plants to anchor themselves. Unless a tank is devoted to floating species or being used to cultivate plants for a benefit other than aesthetics (e.g., providing shelter for newborn fry or a spawning surface for egg scatterers), one generally doesn’t want the plants to go drifting randomly about the tank—it makes preserving a layout nigh impossible and can clog filters and generally create havoc. Unsurprisingly, most plants aren’t keen on moving all over the place either—frequent relocation of many species will slow their growth rate as the plant takes time to adjust to its new environment every time it’s moved.
In the case of terrestrial gardening, the most important aspect of substrate is the delivery of nutrients to the plant, and a lack of nutrients will quickly result in a sickly or dead plant.
Nutrients take a more secondary role in aquatic substrates, however, because plants in the water can absorb nutrients in other ways. While some plants are heavy root feeders (these are also, unsurprisingly, the species most prone to forming large root systems), to varying degrees, all aquatic plants also take in nutrients through their leaves. This process, called foliar feeding, also can apply to terrestrial plants (some gardeners take advantage of this by spritzing fertilizer solutions directly onto leaves), but aquatic plants are far more efficient at it because they lack the waxy, protective cuticle that terrestrial plants use to prevent leaf desiccation. While emergent aquatic plants will develop this cuticle as they break the water line, it serves no function in underwater leaves, which, by definition, cannot dehydrate.
Stem plants are particularly efficient foliar feeders, to the extent that some forego producing root structures altogether. The most notable example of this in the hobby is hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), which is found either floating or anchored by modified leaf structures.
Thus, while substrate can be used to deliver the bulk of necessary nutrients to aquatic plants, it does not have to do so, and this is the first point of division between substrate types: those that store nutrients and those that are more or less inert. Further divisions in substrate approaches for planted tanks occur in the method of nutrient storage/delivery.
Author: Amanda Wenger
Read full article here: http://www.tfhdigital.com/tfh/january_2014?pg=21#pg21
Hideous, hairy, stringy, matted, algae is the bane of the planted aquarium keeper. It can run all over the bottom of your tank and pull up your carpeting plants when you try to remove it. It can grow in huge nasty globs on the surface of your aquarium, cutting out light. It can fill your tank and even sometimes trap and kill your fish. Of all the types of algae, it’s hair algae that causes the most problems for the most aquarists.
There are a number of algae species that grow into a hairy nasty mess. It’s difficult to specifically identify algae because there are so many kinds and they can look very similar. New types are discovered regularly, and there’s a lack of good reference materials with which to identify algae. In fact, algae is so diverse that some types are more closely related to fungus or animals than plants. If you think crypts, vals, and swords are hard to identify, try getting a good specific identification of your algae. Actually, your nasty ball of hair algae may contain several different species of algae. For the most part, then, we have to talk about algae in general terms and descriptions.
The hair algae I’ll be discussing in this month’s column can refer to any of the long, stringy, nasty, green algae that can invade your aquarium. Algae is often discussed in terms of its color, which is caused by its pigmentation. Chlorophyll is a pigment whose predominance makes most plants and green algae green. Green algae can have other pigments, but they have more chlorophyll. Even within the group of green algae, the organisms are not necessarily closely related. And even when two types of hair algae look the same, they may not be related, and different forms of treatment may be more effective for each type. You may have to experiment with several options before finding something that works.
Algae can come into your tank from many sources. Anything that goes into your tank that has been in another aquarium or natural body of water could potentially have algae on it. This includes plants, fish, snails, or any other living thing in your aquarium—including the water they came in with. Fish, shrimp, and most animals will be your least likely culprits. The shells of snails often have algae growing on them. Plants, as well as any decorations and equipment that have been in another aquarium, will most likely have some types of algae growing on them. There is even debate in the aquarium community as to what extent airborne spores might play in bringing algae in to the aquarium. Algae is very small and can come in to your tank from many sources.
The first thing you can do in your battle against hair algae is to remove as much as you can manually. Depending on how much you have in your tank, what kind it is, and if and where it’s attached, this can be a little difficult. If your plants have hair algae attached, you can pull them out of the tank to make it easier to manually remove the unwanted mess. Removing the hair algae will often take two hands, one to hold down your plant and one to pull off the algae. You can also remove parts of the plants that are heavily infested, but you don’t want to remove too much of the plants, as they are the warriors in your battle. Good healthy plants are a key to getting rid of algae.
Water Changes and Parameters
I like water changes as a next step. Most aquarium authors encourage water changes. If you have a problem with the buildup of excess nutrients, water changes will help that. Depending on the water you use, it should also add some micro-nutrients to the tank.
There are some aquarists who believe that water changes should be kept to a minimum in a low-tech tank for various reasons. One school of thought is that the water changes change the chemical composition of the water quickly, giving the algae the advantage, since it adapts to changes in the environment faster than plants do.
Plants like to get used to one particular environment and stay that way. Changes mean their old leaves are no longer optimal for their surroundings; the more change, the more they need to drop old leaves and grow new ones. When they have to do that, they spend a lot more energy, and the old leaves start decomposing and adding to the problem.
But I still believe that regular water changes in any tank are good. Twenty years ago I was in the lesser-water-changes crowd, but some friends convinced me to try doing more water changes. I gave it a try and now believe my fish and plants have done better because of it—so I have switched sides and now advocate regular water changes. I think the benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages. If you do them regularly, they won’t cause huge swings in your tank.
Speaking of water, what’s yours like? In her book Ecology of the Planted Aquarium (Echinodorus Publishing, 2003), Diana Walstad indicates that algae have the advantage in water that’s alkaline and has a high pH. If you have naturally soft water out of the tap, that’s a great advantage for you. For those of us with water like liquid rock, there are other options. First you can purchase or filter your own water. RO water is often used in planted aquariums. Usually it is mixed with tap or several additives are mixed with it to achieve the desired water conditions. Adding CO2 will also lower your pH and can be very beneficial to the plants, but it does require more tank care.
Plant Selection and Growth
Another option—something that I do in the majority of my tanks—is to just grow plants that prefer the rock-like water. Many plants will do well in this type of water, including val, hornwort, swords, and mosses.
Regardless of what type of water you have, it’s always a good idea to research your plants. I can’t tell you how many times people will tell me of their plant-growing woes and then send me a photo of a dying house plant in an aquarium. Many emergent and even terrestrial plants are falsely sold as aquarium plants. Be sure to research your plants and fish before purchase, or be prepared to spend money on things that just won’t work. You need to have healthy aquatic plants to compete with your algae. New growth should be noticeable and should continue indefinitely.
Speaking of healthy plants, another method used to keep aquarium algae down relies on optimal plant growth. Planted-tank expert Tom Barr came up with a method known as “The Estimative Index” in which he states that fertilizers and CO2 combined with good lighting can maximize plant growth, thereby inhibiting the growth of algae. Doses are added daily to several times a week and large water changes are carried out weekly to ensure there are no excessive buildups. Results can be impressive, but this is a labor-intensive way to grow plants. You have to stay on top of it to keep the tank levels consistent, and you will need to trim regularly to keep up with excess plant growth.
Another way to use desirable plants to curb algae is by letting your plants grow across some of the top of the tank or even out of the tank. More plant growth means less for your algae, and plants growing across the top and out of the tank have the added benefit of being able to use the CO2 in the air. Plants at the top of your tank can also provide shade, which can hurt some algae. Just be sure to leave enough light so your plants don’t suffer.
Make sure you have adequate lighting for your aquarium, and replace bulbs frequently. Most sources cite six months to a year as a good time to change bulbs. Ensure that your aquarium isn’t getting sunlight from a window. Often a patch of hair algae can be linked to a passing period of daylight that streams in to a tank from an open window across the room.
Good aquarium practices are a key in fighting hair algae, but you also may wish to employ a small clean-up crew to aid in your battle. Several fish and invertebrates will eat at least some species of hair algae. Some of the ones that I’ve found to be successful are Florida flagfish Jordanella floridae, Ameca splendens, and some mollies. Though most shrimp don’t seem to eat the hair algae, I’ve found that ghost shrimp often will. And if you want to try something really unusual, the tiny Gammarus crustaceans will also eat it.
Mollies are often available at local fish stores, but the other fish may be hard to find. Look for people interested in livebearers or native fish; the ALA and NANFA are good places to start looking. You can also check online for auctions or shops, or ask your local stores if they can order them for you.
Ghost shrimp can often be purchased at many aquarium shops. They are often sold as feeder shrimp. They usually do very well in the planted aquarium with smaller fish. They even breed in the aquarium, readily carrying their eggs and young fry under their bodies, and eventually releasing tiny replicas of themselves.
Gammarus and the very similar-looking Hyella are tiny freshwater shrimp. They are easiest to find in a local body of water. They are often in ponds (both natural and manmade), plants purchased at nurseries that sell pond plants, and in many if not most natural bodies of water. Some fish will eat them, but I’ve found that with small fish in the tank enough Gammarus survive. Unfortunately you won’t be able to grow mosses in a tank with these fish, as they see it as an appetizing meal.
You may notice that there are several different methods for dealing with the growth of unwanted hair algae in the aquarium. Often I find that it’s a slow process of making slight changes in different areas with small successes until finally a stable and satisfactory environment is achieved. Be aware that the advice you find is just that, advice, based on personal observations. Because our water is different to start with, we use different plants and animals and have different lighting, schedules, and species of algae, so our experiences can vary considerably. Using your own personal observations, knowing the options available, and being willing to experiment are key factors in controlling hair algae in the aquarium.
Author: Rhonda Wilson
The author’s 85-gallon (325-liter) tank with an Asiatic/Oceanic layout.
Being a professional photographer, I have enjoyed creating aquarium layouts that I believe anyone can build. I feel that I’m not alone when I say I’m constantly thinking about new aquarium layouts. However, I’m a bit impatient about aquascaping. I find it difficult to wait months for plants and mosses to become established before I can truly enjoy the tank’s appearance and use it for my photography.
I see many stunning displays from the world’s leading layout experts in such magazines as TFH. While incredibly beautiful, these layouts are not easily achieved, so I often use some of their ideas and convert them into my own techniques that I can easily apply to my aquarium. The layouts I end up with are not so time-consuming and result in an aquarium layout that is a little easier for the common aquarist.
Photo Tank Influence
I have solid experience with photo tanks, including how to decorate them to get the best background for my fish photography. Quite a few of these photo-tank layouts can be applied to bigger tanks, which can result in beautiful displays for tank inhabitants.
I recently tested this theory with my own home aquarium. I wanted to change the layout for my 85-gallon (325-liter) tank from an Amazon-themed design to something with more of an Asiatic/Oceanic angle, so I approached the layout of my home aquarium as I would for a photo tank.
I wanted to make a lush environment of green moss on rocks, but I didn’t want to wait a month for the moss to grow in and spread. I also wanted it to be a dense display, so I used readily available algae (“Marimo”) balls.
I found it easy to use my fingers to open the algae balls and make a small carpet of green growth. To fasten them to the “Pagoda” rocks, I tied them on with thin fishing line. It is a bit of a challenge to tie knots with such fine line, especially when I needed to tie enough rocks to create an attractive display in my tank.
However, with perseverance and a few breaks to give my crossed eyes a rest, it took me only a couple of hours to complete the job. The clear fishing line becomes virtually invisible in water, becoming noticeable only on close-up photos.
Natural vs. Functional
I used a mix of sand and river gravel, because I think that looks more natural for most of my general layouts. However, since I wanted to put the algae-covered rocks on a gentle slope, it was necessary to put in some filter-material barriers to stop the sand from sliding too much.
In between the rocks, I added a couple of pleco caves. These tubes are not very attractive, and they don’t have a natural appearance, so I hid them as much as possible while still allowing them to be completely functional. I placed them near the front glass so I would have the pleasure of being able to view the cave dwellers.
I already had artificial mangrove roots from my previous setup, but a variety of roots will suffice. I added a few extra details by placing some coconut fiber where the roots meet the sand to give the impression of ultra-thin roots extending from the main root.
My tendency in the past has almost always been to create Amazon layouts, because I love the fishes from the Amazon region. However, on this occasion, I wanted to keep some wonderful species from Asia and Oceania. It also enabled me to get some better photographs of them.
As of this writing, I have had my new tank setup for a month, and it has produced some awesome fish photos. The Rotala spp. plants have grown in nicely, which has inspired me to add a new batch of fish to photograph.
Author: Johnny Jensen
Original article from our April 2015 Issue. To order back issues, contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Shot by film director Hiroyuki Nakano, the video of Takashi Amano and Nature Aquarium is now available. At the beginning, Takashi Amano appears with a large format camera, followed by images of vivid Nature Aquarium. Mr. Nakano released this video in order to honor the memory of Takashi Amano. We hope you enjoy.
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